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Hukuncin wanda ba’a gani ba a mahanga ta Fikhu. Print E-mail
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Monday, 22 February 2016 20:05

Kasantuwar wannan wa}i’ar mun fuskanci wasu jarabawowi wa]anda a tarihin wannan Harka Islamiyya ba a fuskanci irin su ba,wannan shine rashin ganin wasu ‘yan uwa maza da mata kuma adadi mai yawa,wanda a yanzu haka akwai ‘yan uwa kusan dubu ]aya wa]anda ba a gansu ba,kuma ba a san halin da suke  ciki ba wato suna raye ne ko an kashe su.Saboda zai iya yiwuwa ayi tsammanin an kashe ]an uwa sai kuma daga baya ta bayyana ba haka ba,misali akwai wani ]an uwa da muke magana dashi bayan ya dawo daga ziyarar Karbala,yake ce man ya dawo ya iske gida cike ana amsar taaziyya na ]ansa da aka kashe a cikin wannan wa}i’a,to shine yake cewa shi yana ganin tun da akwai ‘yan uwan da ba a gani ba, a dakata tukuna a bincika sai in ta bayyana an samu tabbacin kisan nasa, a yi zaman makokin,ile ko sai aka ]an bincika sai aka gano yana daga cikin ‘yan uwan da aka kai su kurkuku.To kasantuwar wasu ‘yan uwan da ba a gani ba wasun suma na da Aure,yanzu kuma ba a san halin da suke ciki ba akan suna raye ko basu raye? To a irin wannan Mas’ala akwai bayanai da Fu}aha wato Mujtahidai suka yi akai,misali idan mutum ya duba cikin littafin Tahrirul-wasila na Imam Khumaini juz’i na biyu yana cewa, “Idan ba a ga mutum ba,kuma babu wani labari dangane dashi ko wata alama ta in da yake,sa’annan ba a san ko yana raye ne ko kuma bai raye ba.To a nan idan yana da dukiyar da matarsa zata iya kula da kanta,ko kuma wani waliyyinsa da zai iya kula da ita,ko kuma wasu daga cikin bayin Allah da zasu iya kula da ita,to a wannan yanayi idan akwai ]ayan ukkun nan da aka ambata to WAJIBI ne gareta ta daure ta kuma jira,bai kuma halatta gareta ba tayi wani aure har sai ta samu tabbacin mijin nata bai raye.Amma idan babu ]ayan ukkun nan da aka ambata,in za ta iya ha}uri da kuma dauriya shi kenan ,amma idan ba zata iya daurewar ba kuma tana so tayi Aure,to zata kai wannan al’amari ne zuwa ga Hakimu-Shar’iy,zai ce mata ta jinkirta zuwa shekaru hu]u wato daga lokacin da ta kai wannan }ara zuwa wajensa.To a cikin wannan mudda na shekaru hu]u za a yi bincike na musamman na nemansa,misali a irin wannan wa}i’ar za a }arfafa binciken ne a cibiyoyi na tsaro da makamantansu.To idan shekaru hu]u suka cika ba a ganshi ba,kuma ba a san shin yana raye ne ko bai raye? Yanzu sai shi Hakimu- Shar’iy ya umarci waliyyin wanda ba a ganin ba da ya saki matar,in kuma bai da waliyyi to shi Hakimu-Shar’iy sai ya sake ta.Bayan an saki matar to zata yi Idda na wata hu]u da kwana goma wato shigen iddar wafati.To idan wa]annan ababe da aka ambata tun daga farko zuwa }arshe suka kammala,to yanzu ya halatta tana iya yin wani Aure.”

`        Wata mas’ala kuma itace,da a ce duk bayan ta ]auki wa]annan matakai wato ba zata iya daurewa ba,ta kai al’amarinta zuwa ga Hakimu-Shar’iy,an yi bincike na shekaru hu]u,yanzu an sake ta.Bayan haka sai ga mijinta Allah Ta’ala ya hukumta  dawowarsa.To wannan mas’ala tana da fuskoki guda hu]u sune:1-To idan gabanin a sake ta ne haka ya faru to matarsa ce.2-In kuma bayan an sake tane har ma tayi wani Auren,to yanzu ta fita daga igiyar Aurensa,wato zata kasance a hannun mijinta na biyu ne ba na farkon ba.3-In kuma tana cikin Idda ne ba ta gama ba Allah Ta’ala ya hukumta dawowar mijin,to a nan mijin na da za~i ko ya dawo da ita ko kuma ya bar ta  ta gama iddar, zamansu ya yenke.4-Idan kuma Allah Ta’ala ya hukumta dawowarsa ne bayan ta gama Iddar amma ba ta yi wani Aure ba tukuna,to a nan akwai zantuka biyu na Malamai kan halaccin dawowarta zuwa ga mijinta da kuma rashin dawowarta,saboda haka anan ya danganta ga fatawar Mujtahidin da mutum yake bi wajen fatawowinsa,amma ga wa]anda suke bin Imam Khumaini wajen fatawowi.Fatawarsa anan itace cewa wannan mijin da Allah Ta’ala ya hukumta dawowarsa bayan ta kammala iddar ta,to za a sake masu sabon ]aurin Aure ne,wato ba za a yi gini akan wancan na baya ba.

          Wata mas’ala kuma itace idan matar wanda ba a gani ba sakamakon alamomi da kuma hujjoji da taji ko ta gani,wanda haka ya kai ta ga samun ya}ini na rasuwar mijinta,to a nan bata da bu}atuwar kai al’amarinta zuwa ga Hakimu-Shar’iy.Yanzu al’amarin tsakaninta da mahaliccinta ne wato Allah Ta’ala,in ta tabbatar tsakaninta da Allah cewa wannan miji nata ya rasu ko an kashe shi,shi kenan sai ta yi Idda bayan  ta gama iddar zata iya yin Aurenta wato ba sai tabi irin wa]ancan matakan da aka ambata a baya ba sanka-sanka.

          Wa]annan bayanai da aka yi na wannan mas’ala akan asasin mazhabar Ja’afariyya ne.Amma a mazhabobi na Ahlus-Sunna suna da sa~ani na fatawowi akan haka:A mazhabar Hanafiyya da Shafi’iyya da kuma Hanbaliyya sun tafi akan cewa, “Matar wanda ba a gani ba, ba zata yi Aure ba har sai ta kai muddan da a galibi mijin ba zai rayu zuwa  lokacin ba-sai suka ba da misali da shekarun- Abu Hanifa ya ce shekaru ]ari da ishirin.Ahmad ]an Hanbal da kuma Shafi’i suka ce shekaru chasa’in.”Wato su a wajensu matar wanda ba ta ga mijinta ba zata zauna har shekaru 90 ko 120 saannan sai ta yi idda,in tana da bu}atar Aure sai ta yi.Amma a mazhabar Malikiyya sun tafi akan cewa zata zauna shekaru hu]u ne bayan haka sai tayi iddar wata hu]u da kwana goma,wato dai kamar yadda mazhabar Ja’afariyya suka tafi akai,wasu lokuta idan mutum ya dubi wasu fatawowi na mazhabar Malikiyya sai ya ga suna kama da wasu fatawowi na mazhabar Ja’afariyya.Ni a nawa fahimta haka bai rasa nasaba da zaman Malik tare da Imam Sadi},saboda Malik a Madina aka haife shi anan ya rayu kuma anan ya rasu,haka shima Imam Sadi} a Madina aka haife shi anan ya rayu anan kuma ya rasu,kuma sun yi zamani lokaci guda ne,wanda har Malik ya yi karatu wajen Imam Sadi},kuma ya tasirantu da ababe masu yawa na rayuwar Imam Sadi},misali a al’amarin yin }abalu da sadalu a cikin sallah wato kame hannu da kuma sakin hannu,shi Malik idan mutum ya duba fatawarsa akai zai ga cewa ya tafi akan sakin hannu ne ba }abalu ba,wato dai kamar yadda mazhabar Ja’afariyya suka tafi akai,har ma Malik ]in na kafa hujjar cewa haka ya bu]i ido ya ga mtanen Madina suna yi.Wanda kuma daga cikin Usul na istinba]i na Fi}hun mazhabar Malikiyya akwai aikin mutanen Madina,shi yasa idan mutum ya karanta Muwa]]a Malik zai ga wajaje masu yawa ya gina fatawarsa akan aikin mutanen Madina.Dalilin da yasa na ]an kawo wannan bayani shine Hadisan da ake kawo na yin }abalu wannan fatawa ta Malik na sadalu ya isa ya rusa su,saboda a lokacin a doron }asa ba in da sahabban Manzon Allah suke da yawa kamar birnin Madina,kuma shi Malik a aikace ga abun da ya ga suna yi a cikin sallah wato na sakin hannu,tun da su sun ga Manzon Allah kai tsaye kuma sun rayu dashi,wanda haka ke nuna cewa haka suka ga Manzon Allah na yi,shi yasa shi duk aikin da ya ga suna aikatawa ya ]auke shi a matsayin sunna,akan asasin haka har zai iya gina fatawarsa akai.Dawowa ga shi wannan maudu’i da ake bayani akai na wanda ba a gani ba a mahanga ta fi}hu.Haka nan kuma a wajen Abu Hanifa da Shafi’i,idan ta kwashe wa]annan shekaru da aka ambata kuma a }addara ta yi Aure,kwatsam sai ga mijinta na farko ya dawo,to auren mijinta na biyu ya lalace sai ta dawo ga mijinta na farko,shi kuma Ahmad ]an Hanbal ya ce, idan bayan ]aura Auren mijin na biyu bai yi dukuli da ita ba,to zata koma zuwa ga miji na farko,in kuma yayi dukuli da ita to yanzu al’amarinta yana a hannun mijinta na farko ne,in yaso ya amshi matarsa ya ba shi sadakin da ya biya,in kuma ya so ya bar mashi ya amshi sadakin da ya bayar.Shi kuma Malik ya tafi akan cewa,idan mijin farko ya dawone gabanin na biyun yayi dukuli da ita,to zata koma ga mijin farko ne,in kuma ya dawo ne bayan na biyun yayi dukuli da ita,to zata zauna ne a hannun mijin na biyu,sai dai shi mijin na biyu wajibi ne ya ba mijin na farko sadakin da ya bayar tun asali.In muka dubi wa]annan fatawowi na Malaman Ahlus-Sunna dangane da wannan Mas’ala,in muka kwantata su da fatawowi na Malaman Ja’afariyya zamu ga cewa akwai ish’kaloli masu yawa a wa]annan fatawowi nasu,amma da yake wannan bahasi ne na fagen karatu a wajen karantarwa zamu ta}aita da ababen da aka gabatar.Ga mai bu}atar }arin bayani kan wannan Mas’ala yana iya komawa ga littafin,Fi}hu-ala-mazahibil-khamsa na Shaikh Muhammad Jawad Mugniy ko kuma littafin Fi}hul-Mu}arin na Ayatullahi Ibrahim Jannaty.

          Daga }arshe a wannan darasi da aka gabatar na hukuncin wanda ba a gani ba a mahanga ta Fi}hu zamu fahimci cewa akwai matsala babba ayi  gaggawar yenke hukunci idan ba a ga mutum ba,ayi gini akan be duniya wato dai akwai matakai da Fu}aha suka yi bayani da se an bisu kafin akai ga wannan matsaya musamman ma idan wanda ba a ganin ba yana da iyali.Amma ga wanda aka tabbatar bai duniya misali yana cikin wa]anda aka kashe to shi wannan al’amarinsa a bayyane yake.Kuma insha-Allah wannan jarabawa da muke ciki zata zo ta wuce,ta kuma zama tarihi kamar yadda wa}i’oin baya suka zama.Saboda haka mu da]a dagewa da addu’oi da kuma neman kusanci zuwa ga Allah Ta’ala kamar dai yadda Sayyid[H] ya bu}ata daga wajenmu.Wasaya’alamullazina-zalamu ayya mun}alabin- yan}alibun.

 

 
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